Historically, the economies and society of Southeast Asia have been largely rural and agricultural with rice production, fisheries and livestock playing central roles in local livelihoods. But the region is going through a period of dramatic transformation. Small-scale farmers struggle to survive with economic pressures and competition over land and water. Increasingly, young people see their future in the cities and away from agriculture. At the same time, production methods are changing - and there is a widespread use of agricultural chemicals with little consideration of the risks to human and ecological health.